In order to gauge the measurements of the latest system off face-to-face nearest and dearest, stuff regarding Delight Survey Display screen (Helliwell and Huang, 2013) were utilized: “Whenever exactly how many nearest and dearest have you got?.” Which matter was answered into the a level of just one below 5 loved ones in order to 5 over fifty family unit members. The question to evaluate how big is on the web pal sites is similar (Helliwell and you may Huang, 2013): “Up to just how many members of the family do you have with the Myspace?” but the effect size was some other, between step 1 below 50 to eight over a lot of.
The questions into quality of relationship included in the brand new Eu Public Survey was indeed modified to assess top-notch deal with-to-deal with and online relationships. All the questions was basically: “How many persons have you got with the person you normally talk about sexual and personal matters?” and “Exactly how many of these individuals was your own Twitter loved ones?.” The reaction scale ranged from 1 (none) to help you seven (ten or maybe more).
A principle components analysis with an oblique rotation was performed on the four friendship items. Examination of the Kaiser–Meyer Olkin measure of sampling adequacy (KMO = 0.511) and of the Bartlett’s test of sphericity (? 2 (6) = , p 2 (30) = ; p = 0.001) and Facebook friends’ observed variables (? 2 (49) = ; p = 0.003) are related to each other. Factor scores were used as indexes of friendship in the analyses.
In order to determine physical health, also the understood health goods often used in around the globe surveys (elizabeth.grams., Eriksson et al., 2001 – “How will you rates your health typically” that have responses toward an excellent 5-point level, ranging from decent to help you very bad) the fresh four bits of this new future health measurement of one’s State away from Fitness Survey SF-thirty six (Ware and you can Sherbourne, 1992) was basically included. A typical example of the questions try: “I seem to get sick a little smoother than other some one.” These items have been responded for the a good 5-section size, ranging from step 1 seriously not the case to 5 positively true. The 5 affairs presented an acceptable accuracy (? = 0.72) and also the mediocre of one’s five issues are computed because sign of notice-advertised health.
Mental health was analyzed via four things from the SF-36 (Ware and Sherbourne, 1992). An example are “How frequently maybe you’ve believed very worried within the last cuatro months?.” These types of questions had been responded towards the an excellent 5-section measure, anywhere between not to ever always. Since the amount of internal surface of the things that was a beneficial (? = 0.80), the latest indication regarding psychological state try determined, averaging the responses to those five questions.
The assessment of subjective well-being was performed with two items (r = 0.722; p 2 (5) = ; p 2 (25) = ; p 2 (30) = ; p 2 (30) = ; p 2 (35) = ; p 1 (Figure 1). More specifically, we tested whether bridging and bonding social capital mediated the relationships among face-to-face friendship and health, as the direct pathway between Facebook friends and health proved not to be significant, ? = 0.09, p = 0.192. Age, gender, education, subjective SES, self-esteem, and living alone effects were controlled. Missing data were handled with listwise deletion.
The direct pathway between face-to-face friendship and health was totally mediated by bonding and bridging social capital. For the mediation of bonding, we found significant paths between friendship and bonding, ? = 0.18, t = 5.59, p 2 (6) = , p 2 (64) = ; p 2 (64) = ; p 2 /DF 0.95; CFI > 0.95; RMSEA 2 (5) = ; p 2 (25) = ; p = 0.039] and close friends [? 2 (30) = ; p = 0.028] than the older participants. The other side of the coin reveals that 9.8% of the respondents claimed to have less than five friends and around 8% affirmed having no close friends at all. Regarding older participants, aged 55 years or above, 8.3% referred to not having anyone to speak to about intimate issues and 9.9% indicated having only one intimate friend.